Marie Stopes, a scientist and social activist, is known for her work as a pioneer in popularising the use of birth control in the United Kingdom. Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on October 15, 1880. Stopes grew up in a wealthy and educated family. Her father, Henry, was an architect. Her mother, Charlotte, was a Shakespearean scholar and a strong advocate of women's education. The family moved to London after her birth. Stopes was educated at home by her mother until the age of 12.